Friday, December 6, 2019

NTFS filing system Essay Example For Students

NTFS filing system Essay NTFS is the newer filing system from Windows merely Windows 2000 and higher usage NTFS and FAT32. Which file system is intended chiefly for usage in big USB flash thrusts? I think it would be NTSF it a little more better an newer when it comes to the new OS out at that place similar Windowss 8/7/ and possibly Vista XP merely in instance you have application that might run better on view and XP. Plus since USB didn’t come out until Windows 98 good that when I foremost saw a USB port Which file system provides support for larger difficult thrusts and better security in the signifier of encoding and permissions that restrict entree by unauthorised users? NTFS is usage for security encoding. FAT32 has no security encoding that one ground why Microsoft made NTSF so people can some type of security encoding. It is available in all versions of Windows developed for concern environments from Windows 2000 onwards. Encoding is the procedure of encoding messages or information in such a manner that merely authorised parties can read it. Encoding does non of itself prevent interception. but denies the message content to the interceptor There is besides the Encrypting File System EFS on Microsoft Windows is a characteristic introduced in version 3. 0 of NTFS that provides file system-level encoding. The engineering enables files to be transparently encrypted to protect confidential informations from aggressors with physical entree to the computing machine. EFS is available in all versions of Windows developed for concern environments from Windows 2000 onwards. By default. no files are encrypted. but encoding can be enabled by users on a per-file. per-directory. or per-drive footing. Some EFS scenes can besides be mandated via Group Policy in Windows sphere environments. Cryptographic file system executions for other runing systems are available. but the Microsoft EFS is non compatible with any of them. Why FAT32 is preferred over NTFS file system? I didn’t know people like FAT 31 over NTFS until I took this category. so when I look it up in my text book to see why would person would preferred FAT32 over NTSF in its because it is recommended for difficult discs merely if the difficult disc must besides be accessed by dual- booting with an older version of Windows like Windows 95. 98. or Me. Then I understand since NTSF is non supported by Windows 95. 98. and Me. As with most old package it won’t support new engineering unless the new tech is made for the old package but I see people preferred NTFS since it more up to day of the month if person ask me which one is better FAT32 or NTFS I would state so to acquire NTFS.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Pressures of Finding Salvation Essay Example

Pressures of Finding Salvation Essay Chandler Hoffman Professor Turley Writing 150 Section 5 25 September 2012 The Pressures of Finding Salvation Langston Hughes’ story â€Å"Salvation† is one that raises many questions about his life and childhood experiences. Hughes patterns this story to portray the pressures that caused his faith to be lost. Hughes sat on the mourners’ bench waiting for God to save him but, due to these pressures, he chose to stand and pretend that he found his salvation. Pressure is the influences of outside sources that convince you to conform. Hughes undoubtedly felt pressured. He felt pressured to find truth. Hughes ironically lost his faith in God because of an extreme environment, high expectations, and an overly passionate caretaker. Churches are places of worship, and that is how Hughes’ church is in a very extreme and loud way. Praises to the Lord were shouted out at every moment and â€Å"Amens† were given in agreement frequently. Hughes states that, â€Å"Suddenly the whole room broke into a sea of shouting†¦Waves of rejoicing swept the place [and] women leaped in the air† to portray the enthusiasm and the energy that was flowing throughout the room (281). We will write a custom essay sample on Pressures of Finding Salvation specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Pressures of Finding Salvation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Pressures of Finding Salvation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Specific words such as, â€Å"suddenly† and â€Å"rejoicing† show the quick emotional reaction of the church congregation. The environment he was in was capable of great pressure and power. The congregation of the church puts strong emotion into every move they make because of their passion and want â€Å"’to bring the young lambs to the fold’†(280). Hughes places this quote in his story to show how the minister sees them and how Hughes feels they are being treated. They are the â€Å"young lambs† and the â€Å"fold† is the church community and congregation. This congregation was a tight group inviting the children unto their â€Å"fold†. The pressure from Hughes’ environment was part of his downfall towards disbelief in Jesus. Hughes was facing positive peer pressure in a negative way. This means he was being pressured into something that was genuinely good, but it was poorly carried out. Expectations are set so high that any twelve-year-old boy is bound to fail. Hughes said, â€Å"My Aunt told me that when you were saved you saw a light, and something happened to you inside! † (280). Hughes uses this background knowledge to show the expectations of his character and the anticipation that is given to him from his Aunt. Hughes’ Aunt was only trying to help for â€Å"[she] spoke of it days ahead† (280), but in such an extreme environment Hughes could only hope for his expectations to be completed. Auntie Reed was even supported in her claim by â€Å"many old people [saying] the same thing† (280). Much of the reason the reader can tell that the setting takes place in a very extreme environment is because of the figurative language Hughes uses to write. He tells of the church and how â€Å"the whole building rocked with prayer and song† (280). When he states that the building â€Å"rocked† he does not mean it literally rocked. He uses this word to describe the power of the sounds in the room. Another phrase that is used to show the realness that the congregation felt is when â€Å"some of [the girls] jumped up and went to Jesus right away† (280). They did not literally go running into Christ’s arms, this figurative language explains that to the congregation Christ was a real being standing close to them. Hughes states this because it causes one to believe that now, more than ever, he is wanting to gain the same feeling that these young girls have received. These girls were not the only ones who gave Hughes false hope. Auntie Reed was clearly a passionate woman, for she â€Å"knelt at [Hughes’] knees and cried†(281) hoping that he too would feel that same passion towards Christ. It can be inferred that she is the primary care giver of Hughes and raises him to her best ability. Their bond can be assumed to be very similar to a mother-son relationship. Common to most children, Hughes does not want to disappoint his caretaker. He explains himself as â€Å"a big boy of twelve years old† (281) and he thought of himself as mature young man. He gives his age in the beginning of the story, as well, to set the tone and inform the reader of the time in his life that he was currently in. Hughes states that â€Å"[his] aunt sobbed†(281) to show the great desire she had from him to feel the spirit of his salvation and of Christ. Auntie Reed is another example of how positive pressure can be formed into a negative way. Auntie Reed’s words, â€Å"‘Langston, why don’t you come? Why don’t you come and be saved? Oh, Lamb of God! Why don’t you come? ’†(281) ring throughout this short story. Her begging words are what drive Hughes to stand up. Children do not want to disappoint the adults in their life. Hughes places the image of Auntie Reed in the reader’s head to give the sense of emotion and tension. Imagery is used a lot by Hughes in this story. One can easily close his or her eyes and envision an enthusiastic Auntie Reed and the actions she was making while waiting for Hughes to start his own move from the mourners’ bench. Hughes uses words â€Å"ashamed,† (281) â€Å"shouting,† (281) and â€Å"ecstatic† (281) to show the emotion that he felt compared to the emotion that Auntie Reed and the congregation felt. Hughes desired to find his salvation just as equally as the congregation desired him to find it. Although lying is a sin, Hughes found a way that let down no one but himself. Hughes expected to feel the light of Christ when he arrived that night because â€Å"Every night for weeks†¦some very hardened sinners had been brought to Christ† (280) and he expected that same experience to grace him. Hughes sets the reader up with this background knowledge to give him or her the same hope that he might find his salvation. When that did not happen, he wept. That night, for the last time in my life but one†¦I cried. I cried, in bed alone, and couldn’t stop. † (281) He wept for the lie he told, he wept for the false hope he gave his Aunt, he wept because he let down himself, and for the fact that he did not see Jesus and therefore did not believe. Although we do not know what church this story takes place in, Hughes has made it a relatable event. Everyone in this wo rld is pressured, whether it is by friends, family, co-workers, teachers, or even parents, pressure is all around. The choice everyone has to make is whether or not to fall into the trap of this pressure. In â€Å"Salvation,† Hughes faces an extreme environment, high expectations, and an overly passionate caretaker which ironically lead to his disbelief in God. Hughes felt he had not seen Jesus, but the church’s community and environment as well as his Auntie Reed quickly pressured him into rising and deceiving the people he cared for most. That pressure that was put on Hughes led to his downfall and his disbelief in God and Jesus Christ. One then starts to wonder, can he have another chance at finding salvation?

Monday, November 25, 2019

An evaluation of marketing strategies in international insurance companies, with a view to identifying successful strategies for future use within the industry The WritePass Journal

An evaluation of marketing strategies in international insurance companies, with a view to identifying successful strategies for future use within the industry Literature Review An evaluation of marketing strategies in international insurance companies, with a view to identifying successful strategies for future use within the industry , which focuses specifically on marketing strategies used in life-insurance companies with a global approach, offering relevant information which can potentially be draw upon for the purposes of this wider research. In this proposed paper, the author is going to examine the marketing strategies employed by insurance services to ascertain which of these marketing strategies is likely to result in the success of the organisation and the longer-term factors that will lead into this success. It was found in this research that innovation was one of the key factors associated with successful marketing strategies. By looking at the various strategies, such as pricing, advertising, improving quality control, personal selling and image, it was argued in this research that innovation needed to consider not only the product which is being provided, but also the approach taken to engaging with the markets. This recognises that providing strong customer services is often a secondary marketing strategy which is successful in its own right, without necessarily going down the additional route of advertising and engaging with new customer groups. Other marketing strategies that were recognised as being successful in this paper included the use of information technology as a means of changing the internal structure and enabling companies to engage with a broader customer base with considerable ease, as well as allowing the company to increase its use of sales’ promotions to attract the most relevant customers. Crucially, however, this paper argues that developing new and innovative ideas, whether this be in terms of the method of marketing, or the nature of the products being offered, needs to be continuously at the forefront of the insurance industry, particularly in the current climate where organisations are subject to increased costs, including additional regulatory requirements. These proposals contained within the paper offer an interesting point of discussion for the purpose of this proposed area of research as it looks at the underlying ethos of the strategy rather than the precise strategy itself. Paper 2 Another interesting paper for the literature review is that of Saaty, 2011, which looked specifically at the marketing strategies employed by insurance companies in Saudi Arabia, both in terms of their domestic success and in terms of making international inroads into new markets. This paper looks at the individual strategies being employed within one individual jurisdiction and by drawing on a broad range of primary users that and identifying the factors that ultimately encourage them to engage with a particular organisation. Saudi Arabia is also seen as being a relevant jurisdiction, as it is going through a dramatic period of growth and is therefore encouraging organisations and consumers to think about new ways of working and engaging with their customer base. This research looked at a wide variety of insurance products (unlike the previously identified literature that focussed on the life insurance sector only). Interestingly, this research showed that factors relating to regula tory and social issues were the most likely to influence the individual decision as to which insurance companies would be chosen by the individual consumer. Crucially, however the paper also showed concern about the general acceptance of the need to insure at all, indicating that for a developing region, marketing strategies need to concentrate more on the generic issue associated with why insurers would be important in the first place. This presents an important argument that an international insurance company will need to take into account the fact that some jurisdictions will not necessarily have the same desire and understanding relating to the benefits of insurance and therefore their marketing strategies may need to be adapted, in order to deal with this lack of understanding. It becomes apparent, therefore, that the marketing strategies will need to take into account the way in which the jurisdiction itself is likely to react to the insurance market, in its entirety. Objectives and Importance of the Research The insurance industry is undergoing a dramatic period of change and evolution, with many organisations facing increased costs due to regulatory pressures, as well as the market becoming somewhat saturated in the more developed regions, particularly as consumers look to reduce their daily spending. With this in mind, the way in which international insurance companies can evolve and develop in an increasingly competitive market becomes of particular relevance, as the economy looks to recover and to better engage with its customer base, as well as dealing with the changing dynamics within the economy. There are also increasing opportunities being made available to international organisation to engage with a broader range of consumers, often through the use of information technology which provides those additional opportunities and also additional competition, thus changing the entire dynamic of marketing for the industry. The key objective of this research is to identify marketing strategies that an international insurance company can use to its advantage when establishing itself more firmly within its existing jurisdiction, but also identifies strategies that are likely to be successful when entering into new markets. This is perceived to be particularly important, due to the fact that many international companies may be looking towards entering new jurisdictions that have potentially greater opportunities; therefore, identify marketing strategies that will enable these international organisations enter these new jurisdictions, successfully, is a key objective of this overall research proposal. The first objective will be to explore the challenges being faced by international insurance companies, with specific reference to opportunities that may present themselves to increase the revenue base and to enter new markets as a means of gathering new customers. This will then enable the research to go on to look at the business strategies and marketing strategies which may be appropriate for achieving this aim and looking at the relative merits of various different strategies, from the consumer’s point of view. By looking at various different strategies that may be employed by an insurance company and identifying the demands of the precise market that is being targeted, it is anticipated that a suitable framework can then be suggested for international insurance companies, in the future. Data Collection Methods Marketing, by its very definition, involves engaging and encouraging customers to become (or indeed remain as) customers. Therefore, it is suggested that the most appropriate method of gathering information is through primary research, focusing on surveys (questionnaires) and interviews with insurance customers. Surveys can be sent out to a much broader range of individuals, enabling the researcher to collect a large amount of data in a relatively short space of time and with relatively little cost. This will enable quantitative analysis through SPSS or excel as appropriate to offer graphical representation. However, surveys can potentially create difficulties when it comes to gaining full answers, as individuals will be encouraged to provide an answer to a specific question raised based on the set of answers provided which may or may not fully reflect the feelings of the consumer. By encouraging the respondent to select the â€Å"best fit†, this may be an unfair reflection of the situation and could result in key findings going unidentified. It is for this reason that interviews will be undertaken alongside the surveys, to allow for a greater exploration of key issues and to allow respondents to voice their opinions more fully and freely. This method will supplement the survey, but can be difficult to produce theories, as each individual is likely to respond slightly differently, thus making it harder to analyse the results in a quantitative manner. By combining the two approaches, it is expected that a greater understanding of consumer decision-making can be ascertained. It can then be used in order to meet the overall objective of this research. Ethical Implications of the Research Care needs to be taken when undertaking this research due to the fact that the research involves collecting a large amount of data from individuals. This means that consideration will have to be given as to how personal data will be secured, to ensure that anonymity will be maintained throughout. Any concerns in this regard could result in inaccurate results. Furthermore, any interviews with insurance executives will need to be undertaken with anonymity guaranteed, as individuals working within the insurance industry may be reluctant to provide open and frank discussions, if there are any concerns that the information being provided is going to be made public, as this could jeopardise their long-term career. Ultimately, this will impact on the accuracy of the information that will be provided. This is particularly relevant within the insurance industry which is facing increasing challenges and is therefore potentially going to create difficulties for those looking to progress their c areers. With this in mind, anonymity and security needs to be assured to all respondents. References Saaty, A. (2011). Factors Critical in Marketing Strategies of Insurance Companies in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Marketing Strategies Vol. 3. Issue 3. Shameem, B., and Gupta, S. (2012). Marketing Strategies in Life Insurance Services, International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services and Management Research Vol 1. Issue 11.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Make any topic pls Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Make any topic pls - Essay Example In this post modern time, when one is showing his discomfort in news of Taliban’s imposed restrictions on girls in Afghanistan, no one expects even something least to happen in a country like US, a proclaimed leader of democracy. Despite of difference in gender, the uniqueness stands above. We all are born as human beings notwithstanding the sex. The difference is for the totality of human being. It should not be a measure in rewarding rights. The qualities of both male and fair sex may vary but none stands ahead. Both are the best in their own. The women in this egalitarian period of time have come up to forefront standing along with their male counterparts in almost all the fields. They have shared better parts in most adventurous and risky situations from combat war field to a journey to the space. Nothing holds the modern girl from involving into what a decade back thought to be unattainable by fair sex. A fair number of countries came up with a decision to include women in the armed forces across the world. And given the chances, they have proved their ability to achieve nothing lesser to their male counterparts could

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Applying Sociology to Public Practice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Applying Sociology to Public Practice - Essay Example Sociology is defined as the 'scientific' study of the relationship between human social organization and human behavioural processes. Its early proponents and even sociologists today believe that they can develop a scientific way of studying mankind and his social nature in the same way as natural scientists have formulated a scientific approach to explain the physical world. Fundamental to the field is the notion that the relationship between human organization and social behaviour are subject to law-like processes and forces which can be revealed thru a systematic and careful observation and study. The theoretical models of causality should also be subject to empirical tests. (James, 1996) The problem with sociology which can be observed in the article authored by Francis et al (2007) entitled "Attitude toward Christianity among secondary school pupils in Northern Ireland: shifts in denominational differences" is that sociology tends to become unscientific. Sociology attempts to understand human behaviour not thru a set of a step-by-step analysis of characteristics of individuals but on the influence of interactions among individuals. It emphasizes the social forces present in a certain group which cannot be generalized to other groups much like the way scientific laws work. Social forces cannot be observed directly but must be inferred from human behaviour. In other words, there is no assurance that an observed and analyzed social phenomenon could be applied on another set of events. For example, the case for the article can only be found in Ireland. Sociology, therefore, becomes ambiguous. There is no finality in sociological pursuits because it is subjected to change and what is much more pressing is that mechanisms are often unidentifiable. Even if it was identified, there is always the question of finality. In the article by Francis et al, one can note that there was not even an attempt to determine the mechanism which caused the change in the regard for Christianity by male and female Irish children. All they did was to determine whether there was a change without even attempting to identify whether this was expected or whether it followed some kind of process. There was not even a discussion of a theoretical background discussing the mechanism of change for religious perception. They even conveniently stated that they did not deem it proper to know the underlying cause because it was out of the limits they have set. While it is good to know that there is an improvement in religious perception, wouldn't it have been more useful if one knows what is causing the chan ge so that it may be further developed Sociology will only assume the science mantle when it shakes off its reliance on first person subjective evaluations and surveys. The article itself depends widely on previous studies for comparison and does not even provide a scale of similarity with the procedures used. Most sociologists have little or no understanding of calculus yet they often present least-squares results as with the article. Sociology is for the most part verbal rather than quantitative. (James, 1996) Competing Perspectives As can be deduced from the previous discussion, there is a tendency for sociological knowledge to become of little value. According to Levin (2006), while there are indeed sociological researches that

Monday, November 18, 2019

Visual Arts - Sabotage by Hitchcock Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Visual Arts - Sabotage by Hitchcock - Essay Example Alfred Hitchcock is known throughout the world for his riveting plots and thrilling action movies. The British film director and producer earned so much fame in the action and suspense genre that even after several decades have passed since his death, his name is still alive. He has been called as the most influential film maker of all time. He had a distinctive and detectable directorial style which was prominent in all his directorial works. His character depiction, innovative film editing, and mind boggling mysteries are some of the qualities which set him apart from other directors of his time. He earned the name ‘Master of Macabre’ because of his psychological thrillers and themes depicting violence, murder and crime.    The film â€Å"Sabotage† directed by Alfred Hitchcock was released in 1936. It is based on the book "The Secret Agent" by Joseph Conrad. It is counted as one of Hitchcock's major films of the 1930s. It follows his signature style throughout the movie. The film is categorized in the action and suspense genre. It is a black and white film with 76 minutes of running time. The production studio of the film was Gaumont British Picture Cooperation Limited. Sabotage was released under other alternative titles as well. They are: The Hidden Power I Married a Murderer A woman alone Agent Secret List of cast and characters: Starring: Sylvia Sydney - Mrs Verloc Oskar Homolka - Karl Anton Verloc, Owner of Bijou Cinema John Loder - Detective Sergeant Ted Spencer, Scotland Yard Desmond Tester - Steve Verloc, Mrs Verloc's brother The scene which is being reviewed in this paper begins at 01:02 minutes. When the scene begins Steve, the teenage brother of the main character, Mrs. Verloc, is waiting to cross the road. He has been given a package by Mr. Verloc which he has to take to a certain place before 1:30. But it seems like however hard he may try to get to his destination on time, he keep getting hindered somehow. The Queen's congr egation is passing and so the soldiers have blocked the road. He tries to cross it by making a run for it but it is of no use. With nothing left to do and the clock needles moving away from 1 o’ clock, Steve, stands there waiting for the congregation to pass. The road is crowded with people who are excited by the presence of all the carriages and the horses. The horsemen and their horses are receiving tremendous attention by the simple local people, for whom this is a form of entertainment. Every eye is upon them and the crowd is watching every move with wonder and delight. But it is the look on Steve's face and his expressions of sheer delight are what that grab the most attention. One moment he is worried that he has to get the parcel to the given place on time and the other second he becomes so captivated by the activities around him. The horses and their carriages march forward and Steve is looking at them with awestruck eyes. He looks so young and innocent at that moment and his face is aglow with pure happiness. This shows that even in times of great terror and difficulties, happiness still survives only if we let it in. Hope never abandons us unless we let it go. The look on Steve's face is that of pure joy and contentment, he is amazed by the horses,

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Welfare Facilities During Construction Work

Welfare Facilities During Construction Work Hughes and Ferrett, 2008 have defined that health is the protection of people from illness due to the materials, processes of procedures used in the workplace while safety defined as the protection of people from physical injury or in the absence of the danger in simple way. Health and safety often closely related with the physical and material and mental well-being of the individual at the place of work (Hughes and Ferrett, 2008). By referring to Oxford Dictionary, welfare is defined as the health, happiness and fortunes of a person or group. For the purpose of this research, the provision of welfare facilities consist of washing and sanitation arrangements, provision of drinking water, heating, lighting, accommodation for clothing, seating, eating and rest rooms as well as first aid arrangement for the well-being of the employees (Hughes and Ferrett, 2006). CONSTRUCTION HEALTH AND SAFETY RESPONSIBILITIES Construction health and safety should be of primary concern to employers, employees, government and project participants (Kheni, 2008). Therefore, the client, main contractor, regulatory agencies and employees are the main parties who responsible for construction health and safety (Laryea S. and Mensah S., 2010). There is several government agencies involved in construction safety and health. Each has the same mission towards the safety and health in construction industry as to reduce the accidents or fatalities and the compensation cost as well as to ensure that the risks to health and safety of workers are properly controlled. The contractors role has been mainly focused by the research and publications on construction worker safety due to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) places the responsibility for safety on the employers shoulders (J. Gambatese, J. Hinze, 1998). The table below explained on the main duties of construction parties. PLANNING OF WELFARE FACILITIES Good health and safety planning helps to ensure that a project is well managed and that unexpected costs and problems are minimised (Laryea S. and Mensah S., 2010). Consideration should be made during planning stage prior to constructing any facilities. Issues here include consideration of a safe and healthy location, application of appropriate construction standards, provision of adequate and sanitary living conditions as well as appropriate leisure and health facilities (IFC and the EBR, 2009). Firstly, it is important to make sure welfare arrangements are clearly addressed in the health and safety plan where the Laws and Legislations apply (HSE, 1998). Make sure the facilities reflect the site size, nature of the work, and numbers of people who will use them. An example of nature of work, where consider the provision of showers if the project involves hazardous substances or very dirty work such as sewer maintenance, dusty demolition activities as well as works with contaminated land or concrete pouring (HSE, 1998). The distance of workers will have to travel to the welfare facilities might have to consider as well. The exact nature of the facilities also depends on the intended duration of work and number of different locations. Lastly, consideration on whether the welfare facilities need to be relocated during the construction phase. MINIMUM STANDARD OF WELFARE FACILITIES Minimum standard of welfare facilities should be provided at construction site complying with the regulation for the particular project. The satisfaction of the safety and health act and regulation can be achieved by providing the optimum facilities through the assessing the maximum and minimum of construction workers (Tan, 2010). The person in charge of the construction site must always make sure that the legal requirements of workers welfare are met (HSE, 2004). However, simply providing and enforcing prescriptive rules and procedures are not sufficient to foster safe behavior in the workplace (Reason, 1998). Most construction employers now have safety policies in place, but they need to be kept up to date. The objective is to reflect what actually happens, and to make sure the policy does not contain a hopeful list of wishes that are never likely to be fulfilled (Hotl, A.S.J, 2001) The provision of welfare facilities at transient construction sites and the provision of welfare facilities at fixed construction sites that supplied by Health and Safety Executive often used as guidance in United Kingdom. It gives guidance on the minimum welfare facilities that must be provided or made available to workers on construction sites. The nature and scale of facilities required will depend on the size, location and type of project. Suitable welfare facilities must be available for all workers during all working hours. As a minimum, these will be access to toilet and washing facilities, a supply of clean drinking water, a place to take a breaks and meals and store clothing, shelter in bad weather, and first aid facilities. Most, if not all of these will be covered by local or national regulatory requirements. TYPES OF WELFARE FACILITIES Good welfare facilities not only improve workers welfare but also enhance efficiency. The facilities may be provided and maintained by one contractor or by individual contractors for all workers (ILO, 1995). General welfare facilities that provided on site include: Living Accommodations Sanitary and toilet facilities Washing facilities Drinking water Changing rooms and lockers Rest Facilities Canteen WELFARE FACILITIES REQUIREMENTS The main health and safety requirements in construction relate to tidy sites and decent welfare, falls from height, manual handling, and transport on site (Laryea S. and Mensah S. ,2010) In Malaysia, the welfare provision refer to the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514), Factory and Machineries Act 1967 (Act 139) and Construction Industry Development Board Act 1994 (Act 520). Whereas In United Kingdom, the Construction (Design and Management) Regulation 2007 covers a wide range of basic health, safety and welfare and applies to the workplaces involving construction on sites. By referring to Health, Safety and Executive, (1997), adequate and appropriate welfare facilities must be provided for employees so far as is reasonably practicable while them are at work even though in short period. This means that facilities must be provided unless it is clearly unreasonable in terms of time, trouble, cost and physical difficulty. There is an important additional duty in this Regulation. The one in control of a site has to ensure that there are reasonable welfare facilities available at readily accessible places. HSE, 2010 has provided the information sheet for those in control of construction sites which describes minimum welfare facilities that should be provided or made available on fixed construction sites. In addition, the guidance note is based on a review of these instruments and legislation, as well as guidelines and best practices produced by a range of different private and public sector actions at national and international level. (IFC and EBRD, 2009). The regulation 22 of the Construction (Design and Management) Regulation 2007 has stated few requirements for welfare facilities provided for construction industry. These include provide sanitary and washing facilities and an adequate supply of drinking water; rest facilities; facilities to change and store clothing. Good facilities can positively benefit health and well-being and can help to prevent dermatitis. The requirements of welfare facilities are as below: Living Accommodations The provision of workers accommodation is often related with the importation of an external workforce into an area (IFC and EBRD, 2009). There are several reasons that lead to this occurrence such as the local labour supply or skills base is inadequate, the workers are simply not available due to the remote location of the worksite or the particular skills required. Also it may happen as the labour requirements can only be fulfilled by migrant workers due to the nature of the work or the working conditions (IFC and EBRD, 2009). The accommodation provided either in building type or conventional container for the sleeping and resting purpose. The workers accommodation for construction more relate to a temporary phase of a project (IFC and EBRD, 2009). The accommodation provided shall be appropriate for its location and be clean, safe and at minimum, meet the basic needs of workers because the location of the facilities is important to prevent exposure to wind, fire, flood and other natural hazards (IFC and EBRD, 2009). Therefore, living accommodations are located within a reasonable distance from worksite as possible. The building of living accommodation requires sufficient materials, appreciate maintenance as well as acceptable cleanliness free from nuisance of rubbish and other waste. It shall not be used for the storage of building materials purpose. (ILO, 1992) The conventional container is generally used in Malaysia construction site because it is easily moved to new project (Tan, 2010). It is important to ensure good standards in living facilities. It helps to avoid safety hazards and to protect workers from diseases and illness resulting from humidity, spread of fungus, proliferation of insects or rodents, as well as to maintain a good level of morale (IFC and EBRD, 2009). Sanitary and Toilet Facilities Sanitary and toilet facilities include water closets, portable chemical toilets and urinals. Toilet facilities needed include the flushing toilets and running water which connected to mains water and drainage system if possible. The alternative way is to provide facilities with a built-in water supply and drainage tank (HSE, 2010). An adequate number of toilets should be available at all times for construction workers. Adequate facilities mean by make sure that there are enough toilets for those expected to use, so that the people should not have to queue for long periods to go to the toilet. Toilet arrangements are essential to avoid any contamination and prevent the spread of infectious disease. The following tables show the minimum number of toilets and urinals that should be provided. The number of toilets needed will be depends on the number of construction workers on site. The number of people at work (left column) refers to the maximum number likely to be in the workplace at any one time. Portable chemical toilets are only acceptable instead of making other adequate provision which is not reasonably practicable and it should be maintained and emptied regularly. The number of persons and the frequency of emptying are used to determine the number of portable toilets needed on site by using the ratio 1 toilet to 7 persons where portable toilets are emptied once a week (HSE, 2010). Beside, toilet facilities are conveniently located and easily accessible. Shorter distance for travelling to toilet from worksite means that unnecessary and non-productive times are minimized (Tan, 2010). Standards range from 30 to 60 meters from rooms. Sanitary and toilet facilities are never shared between male and female resident. Otherwise provide lockable doors instead of failing to provide separate facilities for different gender. Moreover, adequate supplies of toilet paper should be always be available. Specific additional sanitary facilities are provided for women where necessary. It is essential for workers to maintain a good standard of personal hygiene but also to prevent contamination and the spread of diseases which result from inadequate sanitary facilities (IFC and EBRD, 2009). Always make sure that the facilities provided are well-lit, have good ventilation, cleaned frequently and kept in fully working condition (HSE, 2010). The number of utilization determines the frequency of cleaning. Basically, daily cleaning may not always be sufficient. Washing Facilities Work in the construction industry is often dusty and dirty as well as involving handling chemicals and other dangerous substances. Therefore, washing facilities provided as a basic hygiene measure, preventing chemical contaminating foods and so being eaten during snacks or meals, being absorbed through the skin or being carried home. Apart from that, it also functions to remove dirt and grime, which also can be ingested and cause sickness and disease. Washing facilities include basins or sinks that allow people to wash their hands, face and forearms (HSE, 2007). Also, it consists of a supply of hot and cold, or warm, water which should be running water and soup or other washing agents for cleaning purpose that are enough for the workers. Washing or shower facilities is provided for particular dirty work or work exposing workers to hazardous substance such as concrete pouring (HSE,2007). An adequate number of washing facilities should be provided to construction workers. Washing facilities should be provided in conjunction with toilets and changing areas. It should be located within reasonable distance from other facilities and from sleeping facilities in particular (HSE, 2010). A clean supply from a tank should be provided instead of main water supply when it is not available (HSE, 2007). Men and women can share basin used for washing hands, face and arms. Provided that a basin large enough to wash face, hands and forearms if necessary and also a means for drying hands such as paper towels or a hot air dryer (HSE, 1998). Unisex shower facilities is available for both gender, provided that is stands alone, is lockable room and can only be used by one person at a time (HSE,2007). These facilities must be kept in good working condition, cleaned frequently, and always ensure that there is sufficient ventilation and lighting (HSE, 2010). Drinking Water Drinking water is essential for workers in the construction industry, irrespective of the type of work they do. To prevent dehydration, workers should always have easy access to a source of clean water. Therefore, a special attention to water quality and quantity is absolutely essential. A supply of wholesome drinking water should be readily available, preferably from the mains. If this is not possible then bottles or tank should be provided for storing water, protected it from possible contamination as well as changeover sufficiently and regularly to prevent it from becoming stale or contaminated (HSE, 2007). Mark clearly on the drinking water supply to distinguish between drinkable and non-drinkable water such as hazardous liquids or water which is not fit to drink. The supplying of drinking water requires cups or other drinking vessels at the outlet, unless the water is supplied in an upward jet, which can be drunk easily such as drinking fountain (HSE, 2007). Drinking-water should not be placed in sanitary facilities, or in places where it can be contaminated by dust, chemicals or other substances. Whatever the source of water supply for drinking, whether at the mess accommodation or elsewhere on the site, it should be clearly marked as drinking-water in words or with a suitable sign. Changing Rooms and Lockers Changing rooms or lockers are particularly important for workers storing personal clothing that not worn on site such as jackets and training shoes and protective clothing that needed for site work such as high visibility jackets and safety boots (HSE, 2007). Changing rooms should be provided with drying and clothes hanging which are easily accessible. Thus, they can separate their wet and dry clothing by hanging on the cupboard. This is essential to where some working clothes are likely to be contaminated by dangerous substances, atmospheric conditions or workplace conditions. Therefore, facilities should be provided to keep working cloths apart from personal clothing (Fon, 2006). For smaller site, the site office may sufficient be a storage area but the separate lockers might be needed too. This is because there is a risk of protective site clothing contaminating everyday clothing, items should be stored separately (HSE, 1998). If electrical heaters are used, ensure the room has well ventilation and fitted with a high temperature cut-out device where possible. Many fires have been caused by placing too much clothing to dry on electrical heaters, making the heater overheat. Rest Facilities Construction workers begin work early. They start their day alert and productive but their activity level decreases as the day passed. Therefore, short breaks taken frequently are much better than infrequent long breaks. Recovery is much faster as having rest before show signs of being really tired (ILO,1995). Rest areas are not to be used to store plant, equipment or materials. It provides shelter from wind and rain. The rest facilities should have an adequate number of tables and chairs, a kettle or urn for boiling water and a means for warming up food such as a gas or electrical heating ring or microwave oven and be adequately heated. Suitable and sufficient, readily accessible rest facilities should be provided. Work areas can be counted as rest areas and as eating facilities, provided they are adequately clean and there is a suitable surface on which to place food. On smaller sites, the site office or hut may suffice as rest area. Canteen Canteen is adequately furnished and protected from the weather, where one can eat in comfort food brought from home or brought from vendors. Canteen may be used as rest facilities provided there is no obligation to purchase food. If canteen is provided, it does not only save the time for construction workers not going out for eating (Tan, 2010). Standards range from providing tables, benches, individual drinking cups and plates to provide special drinking fountains. It should be situated away from workstations to minimize contact with dirt, dust or dangerous substances. Good standards of hygiene in canteen are crucial. Facilities must be kept in a clean and sanitary condition as well as conform to hygiene and safety requirement. EXAMPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE WELFARE FACILITIES ISSUES A company was found not to have provided welfare facilities at a construction site and was served with an improvement notice during an inspection section. The company was prosecuted as failed to provide the facilities within the timescale. The company received a  £2000 fine for not complying with the notice, a  £5000 fine for not providing the welfare facilities, and had to pay prosecution costs of  £1272. A construction company in Devon is caught by surprise for not having hot water and accessible toilet facilities on site and was fined 2,500 by HSE. Rod Hepper concluded: Installing proper facilities on site costs far less than the fines that the HSE will impose if inspectors find the law being flouted. (Pickles, 2001). The Elliott Workspace Marketing Manager, Rod Hepper commented that there are still companies across UK that ignores the necessity of providing appropriate welfare facilities on construction sites in line with regulation in force even after warning from Health and Safety Executive (HSE). In reality, it is a legal requirement for the companies to provide proper toilet facilities and warm running water available at all times (How, 2006). News from workplacelaw on date 13 Dec 2010, a builder whose employees had to work in unsanitary conditions, with no toilet or washing facilities, has appeared in court in Rochdale. Michael Connolly, 46, was prosecuted by the HSE after he repeatedly ignored calls to improve conditions at the site in Littleborough where he had employed contractors to convert a house into flats and shops. HSE inspectors who visited the site found that there were no toilets or washing facilities. ( http://www.workplacelaw.net/news/display/id/31712, 2010). CONCLUSION Work in the construction industry is hazardous and dirty; it involves much manual or physical activity. Welfare facilities such as the provision of drinking water, washing, sanitary and changing accommodation, rest rooms and shelter, facilities for preparing and eating meals, temporary housing, all help to reduce fatigue and improve workers health. The facilities may be provided and maintained by one contractor for all workers or by individual contractors. Good facilities can positively benefit health and well-being and can help to prevent dermatitis. Good welfare facilities not only improve workers welfare but also enhance efficiency. References Welfare at work Guidance for employers on welfare provisions IFC and the EBRD , 2009. Workers accommodation: processes and standards.A guidance note by IFC and the EBRD (ILO, 1992). Thesis ILO, 1995 Safety, health and welfare on construction sites: A training manual ILO. 2003. Safety in numbers. Rep. No. 061, International Labor  Organization, Geneva. J. Gambatese, J. Hinze, 1998. Addressing construction worker safety in the design phase Designing for construction worker safety. Automation in Construction 8 (1999): 643-649. (Laryea S. and Mensah S. ,2010) The Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference of  the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Held at Dauphine Università ©, Paris, 2-3 September 2010 Kheni, Nongiba Alkanam (2008) Impact of health and safety management on safety performance of small and medium-sized construction businesses in Ghana, Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Loughborough University, UK Phil Hughes, Ed Ferrett,2008. Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction: The Handbook for Construction Professionals and Students on NEBOSH and Other Construction Courses Phil Hughes, Ed Ferrett, 2006. Introduction to health and safety in construction HSE, September 2007 CONSTRUCTION HEALTH SAFETY STANDARD No. 20 ,Principle sources of information HSE Construction Information Sheets 18 and 46, HSE, 2010 provision of welfare facilities during construction work. construction information sheet no 59 HSE, 1998 Provision of welfare facilities at fixed construction sites, Construction Information Sheet No 18(rev1) HSE, 2007 workplace health, safety and welfare. A short guide for managers.leafetlet INDG244(rev2) According to the International Labor Organization 1992, the general provisions of welfare are stated under clause 19.there should be adequate supply of wholesome drinking water provided at reasonable access of construction site.